Les trois images de l’Eglise quand les Jesuites naissaient

Les trois images de l’Eglise quand les Jesuites naissaient

EGLISE AU XVI SIECLE ET LA COMPAGNIE DE JESUS NAISSANTE

  1. LES IMAGES DE L’ÉGLISE AU XVIe SIÈCLE

Les images (bateau, troupeau, lumière du monde) nous aident à comprendre ce que l’on attendait de la Compagnie de Jésus naissante, la réponse que les jésuites (IHS) devaient donner. Nous les présentons pour situer le contexte http://https://jesuitas.es/es/inicio/quienes-somos socio-historique et religieux dans lequel la Comgrégation des Pères Jésuites née. Fondée par Saint Ignace de Loyola et ses compagnons, en 1540 comme on peut le rappeler.

I.1 – La barque de Saint Pierre (Les défis de la qualité du clergé, la vie religieuse…)

L’église était appelée autrefois la Barque de Saint Pierre. À ce moment précis du XVe siècle, l’Eglise présentait l’image d’une barque (bateau) dont les rameurs étaient divisés entre eux. La volonté de réformer l’Église s’est manifestée tant dans les ordres religieux qu’entre les peuples. Les ordres (franciscains, carmélites, bénédictins …) se sont battus entre eux ou contre d’autres mouvements tels que les cathares, les Alumbrados, les érasmistes, etc.

Le drame des Cathares supposait une lutte interne de l’Église dans sa manière de se réconcilier avec elle-même et avec Dieu. Sans parler de la prédication des Cathares et autres hérétiques qui cherchaient à revenir aux pratiques chrétgiennes des origines de l’Église, les affrontements violents avaient fait beaucoup de tort à l’Église et à la société. Les conflits religieux et chrétiens ont conduit à des conflits sociaux ou politiques car il n’y avait pas de distinction claire entre les secteurs de la vie sociale ou publique et l’Eglise à cette époque-là.

Deux groupes des partisans du progres et les opposés formaient deux branches des ordres religieux et apparaissaient comme des solutions aux problèmes de l’Église, mais en même temps il n’y avait aucune cohérence concernant la vie interne de l’Église. Professeurs Enrique García Hernán (de l’Université de Comillas et autres universités de Madrid) présente cette image étonnante de l’Église déchirée dans un article du magazine Jerónimo Zurita qui donne la situation générale à cette époque (Cf GARCIA HERNAN, E., «L’environnement illuminé et ses conséquences dans la Compagnie de Jésus», in Jeronimo Zurita, Revista de Historia, 85 (2010), 193-205. 

I.2 Le troupeau (vie chrétienne et vie sociale)

Nommer l’Eglise comme le troupeau du Seigneur, c’est considérer cette image en relation avec la vie des brebis (chrétiens) et leurs relations entre eux ou avec d’autres qui étaient à l’extérieur. L’auteur espagnol Andrés Melquiades nous le rappelle les voies existantes :purgative, illuminative et unitive. Et l’auteur dit que ces voies ont déterminé la vie chrétienne au XVIe siècle. La plupart des ordres religieux voulaient adapter l’une ou l’autre des voies et entre les chrétiens il n’y avait aucune unanimité. Les volontés de réformes étaient des vœux pieux et l’expérience concrète avait été difficile. Difficile comme l’étaient les relations entre chrétiens de naissance et judéo-convertis.

L’Inquisition (romaine ou espagnole) a également présenté une facette très douloureuse de la vie chrétienne. Les chrétiens se sont dénoncés, les uns les autres, et ont été exécutés comme heretiques dénoncés. La violence engendrée par les processus inquisitoriaux constituait déjà des problèmes de vie sociale.

Les conflits entre les princes ou les empereurs et les papes ou les évêques n’avaient pas permis une vie chrétienne qui refléterait l’image d’un troupeau. Il suffit de se souvenir des guerres entre les papes et les empereurs sur les territoires ou contre des princes. Il y eut donc des conflits comme ceux engendrés par le sac de Rome par les troupes impériales (espagnoles) en 1527. La chrétienté était divisée. Il n’y avait pas d’images de l’église comme sel de la terre ou de lumière du monde, moins encore troupeau uni sous la guide d’un berger.

I.3 La lumière du monde (guerres ad intra et extra)

La troisième image dont on se souvient en parlant de l’Église est celle de la lumière du monde. Lorsque les monarques catholiques ont reconquis la péninsule ibérique, ils n’étaient pas satisfaits du christianisme du continente européen. Au cours de ces premières années de découverte du Nouveau Monde (1492-1550), l’Église a également dû apporter l’Évangile dans ces terres de mission. Les missions ont offert une image illustrative du message évangélique. L’Église est la lumière des nations. Mais au XVIº siècle, un point de disputes belliqueuses fut atteint entre les universités, les ordres religieux et les grands mystiques espagnols. Il s’agissait, par exemple, de débattre s’il était juste de parler des titres et de la présence espagnole en Amérique. Les Espagnols et les Portugais se sont combattus dans les terres de la mission. Et ce n’était pas toujours facile de distinguer les raisons de leurs conflits. Elles pouvaient être politiques ou religieux, mais en tout cas c’étaient des empires chrétiens qui avaient apporté la lumière du Christ au monde païen, le monde des infidèles, qui se battaient.

Expliquer la théologie et la mission de la Compagnie de Jésus, dans quelques éclaircissements de concepts et un rappel de ce que les premiers jésuites ont vécu, nous permettra de souligner les apports de ce corps apostolique (Congrégation des Jésuites) dans la vie de l’Église au XVIe siècle. La Compagnie de Jésus, dès son origine, a fait face aux défis ecclésiaux, théologiques et institutionnels. D’une part, l’ordre était présenté comme une offrande au pape de l’époque pour la mission qu’il voulait, et d’autre part, comme un corps religieux qui devrait être dans les pastorales traditionnelles. Et cela, sachant que le contexte général et difficile pour l’Église était celui de la division, de la séparation des chrétiens. Le protestantisme était déjà une protestation ou une division qui pouvait être résolue par l’union des Chrétiens (retour des protestants au catholicisme). Comment alors comprendre la mission de la Compagnie de Jésus dans ce contexte?

Le Pape, après avoir reçu les jésuites, les a envoyés dans tous les lieux où la mission était urgente. Les services de l’Église n’étaient pas seulement de type pastoral traditionnel pour un corps religieux, ni de type mendiant ni de type monastique. La Compagnie de Jésus devait définir sa mission, à la lumière des expériences.

II – LES CONTRIBUTIONS DES PREMIERS JÉSUITS

II.1 La mission de la Compagnie naissante de Jésus

Le jésuite allemand Michael SIEVERNICH parle de la mission en général et des missions dans leurs aspects temporels ou spatiaux (cf SIEVERNICH, M., «La mission et les missions dans la société primitive de Jésus», in McCoog, Th., Ite Inflamate omnia, in IHSI, Rome 2010, 255-273. Dans cette section, nous nous référons à lui quand il parle de mission et missions).

Nous utiliserons cette présentation dans les deux prochaines sections pour clarifier quelle était la mission de la Compagnie de Jésus à sa niassance et ce qui continue d’être la nôtre aujourd¡hui.

II.1.1 La mission est une nouvelle terminologie

Au début du XVIe siècle, le terme mission utilisé par les jésuites apparaissait comme une nouveauté créé par eux comme ils l’utilisaient pour référer à la réalité vécue pour signifier trois choses:

– Mission: l’envoi des jésuites. Cette mission définie pour un jésuite individuellement ou en groupe est née de l’autorité ecclésiale (le pape) et par conséquent du supérieur général de l’ordre (le Père Général). Cela a mis en évidence une activité apostolique précise comme le cas des missions «in solidum» de Francisco Javier pour l’Inde et de nombreux autres dans cette Compagnie de Jésus naissante.

– Mission: «une entreprise au service de la propagation de la foi». Ce second sens impliquait des exigences spécifiques: organisation, opérabilité et hiérarchie. Dans sa réalisation concrète, la mission avait nécessité des ressources personnelles, du matériel, des activités et une subsistance au fil du temps.

– Mission: territoires. Le troisième sens de la mission concernait un lieu de développement, le territoire. Ainsi, les régions dans lesquelles les jésuites avaient été envoyés, dans lesquelles ils avaient commencé des activités de propagation de la foi, des confrontations avec d’autres religions ou hérésies, étaient des missions jésuites. Non seulement à cause de leur nombre, de leur répartition dans le monde, mais aussi à cause de leur distinction par rapport aux autres disciples de Jésus-Christ.

II.1.2 Racines spirituelles du terme mission et ce qui se vit dans la Compagnie de Jésus

Le concept de mission dans son sens personnel, reçu du Seigneur à travers les autorités, trouve son origine dans la vie personnelle de saint Ignace de Loyola (comme on peut le lire dans son Autobiographie, Le Récit du pélerin). La disponibilité que le saint de Loyola a exprimée dans sa vie de pèlerin en dit long sur la disponibilité à avoir entreprendre cette une entreprise missionnaire.

Les Exercices Spirituels de Saint Ignace de Loyola proposent un chemin de conversion personnelle, de discernement spirituel et établissent les bases spirituelles des entreprises missionnaires et des territoires missionnaires. Dans les conquêtes des Indes (Amérique et Asie), on parlait aussi de «conquête spirituelle».

La vie des missionnaires, leurs activités, leurs entreprises missionnaires, ainsi que leurs dédicaces personnelles étaient des moyens et des manières de travailler dans la vigne du Seigneur. Tout indique le service universel de l’Église. En fait, dirions-nous, la spiritualité jésuite englobe tout ce qui est vécu: en tout, aimer et servir.

Les jésuites, dès le début de leur vie en tant que groupe «d’amis dans le Seigneur», ont voulu se distinguer par leur vie religieuse mais aussi en tant que groupe uni. Nous rappelons ses trois principes: le principe spirituel de mobilité (pour le pèlerinage en Terre Sainte), le principe apostolique d’envoi (par le pape) et le principe pastoral des destinataires, façonnant avec eux la dynamique interne de l’ordre (cf nous suivons ici SIEVERNICH, M., op. cit. p.260). Ces principes ont été inclus dans toutes les bulles écrites: la confirmation de 1540 (Regimini Militantis ecclesiae de Pablo III), celle élargie de 1550 (Exposicit debitum de Julio III).

Les options pastorales sont variées mais ont presque toutes les trois aspects: l’annonce, l’administration des sacrements et la diaconie (service). Il s’agissait du programme jésuite, qui se compose d’une triade: services liés à la Parole de Dieu (prédication, enseignement de la doctrine chrétienne, Exercices Spirituels); services sacramentels (administration des sacrements, formation de la conscience); œuvres de charité (restauration de la paix, soins aux prisonniers, soins aux malades).

En résumant cette trajectoire du concept et l’expérience de la mission, il faut souligner que son utilisation n’est plus uniquement celle de la Compagnie de Jésus. En fait « lorsque la ‘Congregatio de propaganda fide’ romaine a fait connaître sa constitution aux nonces apostoliques au moyen d’une circulaire datée du 15 janvier 1622 dans laquelle le concept en question était utilisé comme un terme technique (en italien : missioni), il a atteint une carte de citoyenneté dans le jargon ecclésiastique.  (nous suivons ici SIEVERNICH, M., op. cit., p. 269). Nous savons maintenant que le terme mission avait des significations différentes, utilisées par les jésuites.

II.2 La théologie de la Compagnie naissante

Parler de la théologie de la Compagnie de Jésus naissante est un effort pour considérer les réflexions et les actions des jésuites en ce momento-là. Cette théologie ne partait pas d’abord des définitions précédentes mais était le résultat des réflexions des actions. Les premiers jésuites avaient utilisé les moyens de l’époque pour défendre leur doctrine théologique. En 1542, les trois premiers jésuites envoyés en Allemagne étaient à la disposition des évêques pour les accompagner ou défendre leur doctrine. Ils s’étaient distingués dans la Diète de Spira (1542).

Jerome Nadal était l’un des jésuites dont la contribution à la lutte contre la Réforme protestante a été décisive. Suivant les notes de Diego Molina, Diego Laínez et Jerome Nadal étaient présents à la Diète d’Augsbourg en février 1555, dans la délégation du cardinal Morone. Nadal s’est démarqué par son grand travail de mobilisation pour la lutte pour la foi en Allemagne. Bien que cette expérience d’Augsbourg ait marqué Nadal, sa vision et son influence sur la mission de la première Compagnie étaient remarquables. C’est ainsi que Diego Molina le résume: «Jerónimo Nadal n’appartenait pas au groupe des premiers compagnons, comme nous l’avons dit. Cependant, l’influence qu’l exercera sur l’ordre émergent n’est pas négligeable. Le fait qu’Ignace l’ait nommé pour une tournée en Europe pour expliquer les Constitutions récemment écrites […] a grandement contribué à cela» (cf MOLINA, D., La Compagnie de Jésus, ‘’The Reform of the Church and Trent’’, dans les notes du professeur, novembre 2019).

La Compagnie de Jésus est née comme un ordre offert au pape. Cela impliquait dès le début que les pensées et les options apostoliques devaient en tenir compte. En fait, le lien n’était pas seulement légal. Les papes voulaient des réformes au sein de l’Église en même temps que la contre-réforme. En janvier 1556, le pape Paul IV a appelé les jésuites à collaborer à toutes les initiatives pour mener à bien une réforme sérieuse. Diego Molina nous le dit: «Le 20 janvier 1556, Paul IV annonça la formation d’un groupe qui devait étudier la réforme de l’Église, ou plutôt la réforme de la curie. Le 30 du même mois, il créa trois commissions auxquelles étaient présents des jésuites: Laínez dans la première, Olavio dans la seconde et Frusio dans la troisième (cfr SCADUTO, M., L’epoca di Giacomo Lainez. L’Azione. 1556- 1565, Rome 1974, 16) » (cf MOLINA, D., Notes, novembre 2019). La mission était plus ancienne, pour cela, Javier Cía décrit Laínez comme un homme actif dans l’Église de son temps; pour son dévouement à la diffusion de l’Évangile parmi le peuple et sa contribution aux réformes. Il se consacra à la réforme des monastères et du clergé, par mandat du pape qui l’avait déjà nommé professeur de théologie à Rome en 1537 (avant l’approbation de la Compagnie) (cf CIA BLASCO, J., Profil de Diego Laínez (1512-1565), Sal Terrae 100, 2012, Pp.160-161).

De tout cela, on peut penser que la théologie de la Société devait se faire en tenant compte des événements. Ainsi Nadal, en 1557, dut non seulement défendre l’ordre contre les protestants mais aussi contre des universités comme celle de Paris, qui non seulement attaquèrent la Compagnie mais pour le fait d’aller contre le pape et son autorité. Nadal a présenté un développement systématique du problème de la supériorité du pape sur le concile.

Approuvées par l’autorité du pape, les attaques de l’Université de Paris contre l’ordre de Jésuites étaient des attaques contre l’autorité du siège apostolique. Dans la même ligne de définition de la théologie de la nouvelle Compagnie de Jésus, il fallait aussi trouver des expressions des manières de vivre en corps. Les Constitutions avaient été écrites alors. Et pendant ces premières années, Saint Ignace a confié à Nadal de les présenter. Les Constitutions étaient depuis le début, un document officiel et une marque d’identité des jésuites. Elles ont mis l’accent sur l’obéissance au pape et la défense de la foi chrétienne. Pour Nadal, comme pour tous les Jésuites, l’obéissance qui se confirmait avec les pratiques du quatrième vœu, signifiait la soumission au chef de l’Église, en la personne du pape. Là-dessus, les choses ont été plus que claires, aux témoiganges de certaines explications comme celles de Molina: ‘’les termes dans lesquels Nadal formule ses idées ne laissent aucun doute et condamnent toutes les questions importantes qui seront traitées plus tard dans les œuvres des théologiens jésuites: l’origine du pouvoir du Pontife romain et la collation de la même chose aux évêques, le problème de la position du Pontife romain dans l’Église et de son infaillibilité. La permanence de ces idées dans la théologie catholique est claire, si l’on pense à la définition de Vatican I. L’union de la Compagnie de Jésus avec la papauté fait même supposer à Nadal qu’elle jouira de l’infaillibilité propre au Vicaire du Christ » (cf MOLINA, D., Notes des cours, novembre 2019). En fait, les documents du Concile Vatican I définissaient le pape comme « Pasteur Aeternus », qui était une répétition de l’enseignement reçu du Pape Léon le Grand et publié après la Réforme (Vatican I, DH, 3058).

L’option pour le pape, dans la mission personnelle du pape, impliquait aussi une réciprocité d’action, puisque le pape était pasteur de l’Église universelle sur laquelle il devait veiller.

Les apports de la Compagnie naissante du XVIe siècle, se sont peu à peu aiguisés jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Les défis des changements, des lieux aussi, mais la Compagnie de Jésus continue de répondre aux appels de l’Église avec le même esprit ignatien originel.

En ces temps de prière pour l’unité des chrétiens, il nous semblait important rapporter l’histoire pour ceux qui veulent le savoir.

Madrid, 19 janvier 2021.

Camille Manyenan Nodjita, sj.

admin

880 commentaires sur “Les trois images de l’Eglise quand les Jesuites naissaient

  1. Kış aylarının yavaş yavaş kendini göstermesiyle beraber soğukların neden olduğu hastalık ve cilt tahribatlarından korunmamız gerekiyor. İnsan bedeni tükettiği besinlerle kendini koruyan ve onaran bir yapıya sahiptir. Özellikle kış döneminin meyve ve sebzelerinin tüketilmesi, vücudun kış aylarında karşılaşacağı virüs, bakteri ve diğer hastalık yaratan organizmalardan korunmasını sağlıyor. Bu aylarda en çok elma ve portakal tüketilmesi uzmanlarca tavsiye edilen meyveler arasında başı çekmektedir. Öte yandan kışın dışarı soğuk alan insan vücudu, evine gidip sıcak bir alana girdiğinde sıcak ve soğuk zıtlığından doğan bazı cilt reaksiyonları yaşayabiliyor. Bunların başında yer alan el çatlakları da ciddi sorunlara yol açabilir. Bu noktada el çatlaklarına ne iyi gelir konusunda birçok rehber içerik bulmak mümkün. El çatlaklarına ne iyi gelir diye bakacak olursak bunun için birçok doğal ve tıbbi tedavi bulunmaktadır.

  2. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  3. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  4. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  5. This blog is definitely rather handy since I’m at the moment creating an internet floral website – although I am only starting out therefore it’s really fairly small, nothing like this site. Can link to a few of the posts here as they are quite. Thanks much. Zoey Olsen

  6. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!!……

  7. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  8. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  9. I blog quite often and I genuinely appreciate your information. This
    great article has really peaked my interest. I will take a note of
    your website and keep checking for new information about once
    a week. I subscribed to your Feed too.

  10. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  11. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  12. Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clarity to your publish is simply great and i can think you are an expert in this subject. Well along with your permission allow me to snatch your RSS feed to stay updated with drawing close post. Thank you one million and please continue the rewarding work.|…

  13. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.>>>>

  14. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  15. It is rare to discover a specialist in whom you might have some faith. In the world these days, nobody genuinely cares about showing others exactly how in this issue. How fortunate I am to have now found such a wonderful website as this. It is people like you that make a genuine difference currently through the suggestions they discuss.!!

  16. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  17. Bir erkeğin güzel giyinmesi kadar güzel kokması da oldukça önemlidir. Birisiyle buluşmaya ya da kalabalık bir ortama gitmeden önce temiz ve şık kıyafetler giymek ilk intiba için son derece mühimdir. Fakat bunun yanı sıra kişinin güzel kokması da etrafındaki kişi veya kişilerin dikkatini de çekmektedir. Bu nedenle erkek parfüm ürünleri arasından kalıcı ve etkili bir kokuya sahip parfüm seçilmesi de büyük önem taşır. Erkek parfüm ürünlerinin en önemli özelliği, kalıcı ve hoş bir koku içermesidir. Bir erkeğin güzel kokması, karşısındaki kişilerin onda uyandırdığı merakı ve hoş hisleri daha da artırmaktadır. Öyle ki bazı insanların koku hafızası çok güçlü olduğu için bir parfümle o parfümü kullanan kişiyi kafasında tutar ve o kokuyu her aldığında aklına o kişi gelebilir.

  18. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  19. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.!!!

  20. Anne olmak, dünyaya bir çocuk getirmek çok ciddi bir sorumluluk. Bebek sahibi olmak babalar için de oldukça önemli bir durumken; annelerin bu konudaki yükü daha ağır. Doğum sonrası fizyolojik nedenlerle çocuğun anneye daha yakın hissetmesi de annenin daima çocuğun yanında olmasını gerektiriyor. Bu süreç çocukta erken dönemde ortaya çıkan bazı hastalıklarla daha da zorlaşabiliyor. Bunlardan biri de her beş bebekten birinde yaşanan kolik bebek durumudur. Kolik bebek, doğum sonrasındaki ilk 2 haftada ortaya çıkan bebeğin sürekli ağlaması ve kasılması durumudur. Bu problemin altında yatan temel sebep ise gaz sancısıdır. Anne ve babalar bu süreçte bebeğin gaz durumunu dikkatle takip eder ve gaz çıkarması için elinden geleni yapar. Bu gibi durumlarda bebeğin bir süre sallanması, bebeğin anne göğsüne yaslanarak dinlenmesi ve poposunun ovulması bu sorunu çözmektedir.

  21. Bir evin veya spesifik olarak bir odanın insanlarda etki bırakması için dekoratif hamleler gerekmektedir. Günümüzde kafelerde bunu sıklıkla görüyoruz. İşletmeler artık müşterilerine havalı hissettirmek için mdf tablo kullanılarak yapılmış olan ürünleri duvarlara asıyor. Bu mdf tablo ürünleri genellikle yenilikçi ve modern tasarımları içine alan dekoratif eşyalar oluyor. Aynı mantıkla bir evi ya da kendi odanızı canlandırmak da mümkün. Mdf tablo denildiği zaman uçsuz bucaksız bir tasarım dünyası karşımıza çıkıyor: Hayvanlar, film figürleri, popüler kültür ögeleri, manzaralar ve ünlü kişiler gibi birçok tasarım sınıfı bulunuyor. Bu ürünler sayesinde bir evi adeta baştan yaratmak, o evde daha huzurlu ve keyifli hissetmek mümkün. Kaliteli baskı makineleriyle yıllarca duvarda kalan mdf tablo günümüzün en yaygın dekoratif tercihleri arasında yer alıyor.

  22. Birçok insanın niş alanlara meraklı olması, bu konular hakkında detaylı bilgi paylaşan yayıncıların ortaya çıkmasını sağladı. Günümüzde hemen hemen her konu hakkında meraklısı çok az sayıda insan olsa bile temiz bir dille yazılmış, akıcı, güvenilir ve kaliteli içerik bulmak mümkün. Mimarlık bir niş bilgi alanı değil. İçerisinde onlarca konu başlığı ve alt başlıklar bulunan bir külliyat diyebiliriz. Ancak arkipedya gibi mimarlık sitesi olarak yayın yapan mecralar, mimarlığın niş diyebileceğimiz her kolu hakkında entelektüel bilgi sunuyor. Özel mimar dosyaları, mimarlıkta önemli olan kavramlar, etkinlik duyuruları ve iş dünyasından mimarlık tüyoları gibi onlarca konuda içerik üreten bir mimarlık sitesi olan arkipedya, 2021 yılının Ekim ayından itibaren profesyonel ve sektörün tüm dinamiklerini gözeten bir yayıncılık faaliyeti yürütüyor.

  23. 21. yüzyılda teknolojik atılımlar sayesinde artık birçok meslek hayatımızdan çıkarken, bunun yanında da birçok yeni meslek hayatımıza girdi. Hizmet sektöründe artık çok daha robotik mekanizmalar kullanılarak bu alandaki insan gücüne olan ihtiyaç giderek azaldı. Bunun yanı sıra günümüzde birçok yeni meslek de dijital dünya sayesinde kendine yer buldu. Bu mesleklerden belki de en revaçta olanı dijital video içerik yayıncısı olmak diyebiliriz. Bu noktada akla ilk olarak Youtube üzerinde yayın yapan Youtuber’lar geliyor. Youtube’da yayın yapmak ve yapılan yayınlarda gösterilen reklamlardan para kazanmak mümkün. Fakat bunun için Youtube şirketinin koyduğu bazı kurallar var. Bunlardan en önemlisi ise 4000 saat izlenme kuralı. Bu kuralı birçok içerik üretici geçmekte zorlanıyor. Bunun için Youtube izlenme satın al hizmeti bulunuyor. Bu hizmet sayesinde hızlıca 4000 saat izlenmeye ulaşabiliyor ve diğer küçük şartları da yerine getirerek Youtube kanalınızdan para kazanmaya başlayabiliyorsunuz. I

  24. This blog is definitely rather handy since I’m at the moment creating an internet floral website – although I am only starting out therefore it’s really fairly small, nothing like this site. Can link to a few of the posts here as they are quite. Thanks much. Zoey Olsen

  25. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  26. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  27. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  28. ip adresleri kullanıcıların kullanarak internette gezinebilmelerine imkan tanıyan ve numaralardan meydana gelen , internet servis sağlayıcısı tarafından sağlanan bir hizmettir.İp adresinin takibi çok kolaydır.Bu yüzden VPN , proxy ve dns değiştirme gibi yöntemleri sizlere öneriyoruz.0 güvenli hale gelmeyeceksiniz ancak takiniz zorlaşacaktır.VPN hizmetleri ücretli yada ücretsiz 3. taraflar tarafından sağlandığı için güvenli sayılmazsınız ve bu hizmet ile birlikte başka sitelere giriş yaptığınız şifreler görülebilir giriş yaptığınız sitelerin bir listesi yada aktiviteleriniz başkaları tarafından görülebilir.

  29. Ihr digitaler Lizenzanbieter ist Softhier.com. Kaufen Sie Windows 10 Pro- und Windows 11-Betriebssystemlizenzen zu erschwinglichen Preisen. Sie können auch Office 2019 Pro und andere Lizenzschlüssel erwerben.

  30. Those are yours alright! . We at least need to get these people stealing images to start blogging! They probably just did a image search and grabbed them. They look good though!

  31. This blog is definitely rather handy since I’m at the moment creating an internet floral website – although I am only starting out therefore it’s really fairly small, nothing like this site. Can link to a few of the posts here as they are quite. Thanks much. Zoey Olsen

  32. Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular BlogEngine.net.Thethoughts you express are really awesome. Hope you will right some more posts.

  33. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  34. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  35. I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one these days.

    Take a look at my homepage; Federico

  36. Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your weblog.
    You have some really good articles and I think I would be a good asset.
    If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some material for your blog
    in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me
    an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

    Also visit my webpage :: plansite.group

  37. Thank you for your site post. Johnson and I have already been saving for
    a new guide on this theme and your short article has made people like us
    to save our own money. Your notions really answered all our concerns.

    In fact, greater than what we had recognized prior to when we
    came upon your fantastic blog. I actually no longer have doubts along
    with a troubled mind because you have completely attended to our needs in this article.
    Thanks

    Here is my web-site; male skin

  38. Howdy! I realize this is kind of off-topic however I had to ask.

    Does running a well-established blog such as yours require
    a massive amount work? I’m completely new to blogging but
    I do write in my journal everyday. I’d like to start a blog so I will be able to share my personal experience and feelings online.

    Please let me know if you have any kind of suggestions or tips for
    brand new aspiring bloggers. Appreciate it!

    Look at my webpage – http://163.30.42.16

  39. I am also commenting to let you know of the outstanding experience my cousin’s princess encountered reading through your site.

    She came to find a lot of issues, which include what it is
    like to possess an ideal giving character to let other folks
    quite simply learn specific complex issues. You truly exceeded her
    desires. Many thanks for imparting these priceless, safe, revealing as well as fun tips
    on this topic to Sandra.

    Feel free to visit my blog … Lynell

  40. I wanted to follow along and allow you to know how considerably
    I loved discovering your web site today. I will consider it a
    real honor to operate at my business office and be able to use
    the tips shared on your blog and also take part in visitors’ feedback like this.
    Should a position regarding guest article author become on offer at your end, i highly recommend you let me know.

    Here is my web-site – healthy eating diets

  41. Hi there, just changed into alert to your blog
    via Google, and located that it is really informative.
    I’m going to watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future.
    Numerous other people shall be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

    Here is my web page knife blades

  42. I was very pleased to uncover this page. I need to to thank you for your
    time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely really liked every bit of it and i also
    have you book marked to check out new stuff in your web site.

    My website: Susanne

  43. Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam feedback?
    If so how do you protect against it, any plugin or anything you can advise?
    I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any assistance is very
    much appreciated.

    Have a look at my webpage :: growing mini-course

  44. Unquestionably consider that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the net the easiest thing to consider of.
    I say to you, I definitely get annoyed whilst other
    folks think about worries that they just don’t understand about.
    You controlled to hit the nail upon the top and outlined out the
    whole thing with no need side-effects , other people can take a signal.
    Will likely be again to get more. Thanks

    Feel free to visit my page – indoor growing mini-course

  45. Hey would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a hard time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your layout seems
    different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique.

    P.S Sorry for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

    Have a look at my blog post http://23.95.102.216/viewtopic.php?id=313011

  46. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I actually
    enjoyed reading it, you may be a great author. I will remember to bookmark your blog and will eventually come back someday.
    I want to encourage one to continue your great work,
    have a nice afternoon!

    Also visit my web-site skin care

  47. Hey there would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a
    hard time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and
    Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S My apologies sex tips for couples being off-topic but I had to ask!

  48. Amazing blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress
    or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m totally
    overwhelmed .. Any tips? Cheers!

    My page – 23.95.102.216

  49. Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clarity for your post is just spectacular and i can assume you’re knowledgeable in this subject.
    Fine with your permission let me to snatch your feed to stay
    up to date with impending post. Thank you 1,000,000 and please carry
    on the enjoyable work.

    Also visit my webpage; man skin care

  50. hello there and thank you for your info ? I have definitely picked up something new
    from right here. I did however expertise some technical issues
    using this web site, since I experienced to reload the site
    many times previous to I could get it to load correctly.

    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow
    loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score
    if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Well I am
    adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much more of
    your respective interesting content. Make sure you update this again soon..

    Also visit my web blog: weed seeds

  51. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
    The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Firefox.
    I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility
    but I thought I’d post to let you know. The style and design look great though!

    Hope you get the problem solved soon. Kudos

    Also visit my website; ultrametabolism diet

  52. Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this information. Today bloggers
    publish just about gossips and internet and this is really frustrating.
    A good blog with exciting content, this is what
    I need. Thanks for keeping this site, I’ll be visiting
    it. Do you do newsletters? Can’t find it.

    My blog post … eating plan

  53. Wonderful blog you have here but I was wondering
    if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics discussed here?

    I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get feedback from other experienced
    people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Cheers!

    My site: https://patinajeartistico.es/oldforum/index.php?action=profile;u=63700

  54. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s equally
    educative and amusing, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head.
    The issue is something too few men and women are speaking intelligently about.
    Now i’m very happy I came across this during my hunt for something
    regarding this.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog forum.m2clasic.ro

  55. With havin so much content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or
    copyright violation? My blog has a lot of completely unique content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced
    but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any techniques to help prevent content from being stolen? I’d
    definitely appreciate it.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog build muscle

  56. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you make this website yourself or did you hire
    someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking
    to create my own blog and would like to know where u got this from.
    cheers

    Here is my homepage :: male orgasm

  57. This is the right site for anybody who would like
    to find out about this topic. You know a whole foods lot its
    almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually would want to?HaHa).
    You definitely put a brand new spin on a topic that’s been discussed
    for years. Excellent stuff, just excellent!

  58. My partner and i still can’t quite assume that I could possibly be one of those reading through the important tips found on your website.
    My family and I are sincerely thankful for your generosity and for providing me the possibility to pursue
    my personal chosen profession path. Thanks for the important information I obtained from
    your web site.

    Here is my web blog ketogenic diet ulitmate

  59. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly
    helpful & it helped me out much. I am hoping to offer
    something again and aid others such as you aided me.

    Feel free to surf to my website; omega 3

  60. That is the precise weblog for anyone who needs to find out about this topic. You notice so much its virtually hard to argue with you (not that I truly would need…HaHa). You undoubtedly put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Nice stuff, simply nice!

  61. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to
    be actually something that I think I would
    never understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me.
    I am looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang
    of it!

    Look into my blog post :: natural skin

  62. I’ve been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of
    space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
    Studying this information So i am glad to exhibit that
    I have an incredibly good uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what
    I needed. I so much indubitably will make certain to
    do not forget this web site and provides it a look regularly.

    Here is my page – Beatrice

  63. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as I provide
    credit and sources back to your weblog? My blog is in the very same
    niche as yours and my visitors would genuinely benefit from some of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this alright with you. Thanks a lot!

    Stop by my web site http://www.gejiu.yn.cn

  64. Hello would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog in the near future but
    I’m having a hard time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and
    Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for
    something unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

    Feel free to surf to my web-site … growing mini-course

  65. Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just too excellent.
    I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it.

    You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it
    wise. I can not wait to read much more from you. This is really a great web site.

    Also visit my webpage: better sex life

  66. Can I just say what a relief to uncover somebody that really understands what they’re talking about online.
    You certainly realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important.
    A lot more people must look at this and understand this
    side of your story. I was surprised that you
    are not more popular given that you surely possess the gift.

    Feel free to surf to my webpage; http://www.hjzzj.com

  67. Great paintings! That is the kind of information that are supposed to be shared across the
    net. Shame on Google for now not positioning this put up
    upper! Come on over and consult with my web site .
    Thank you =)

    Here is my web site :: Penney

  68. It’s perfect time to make a few plans for the future and it’s
    time to be happy. I’ve learn this post and if I may just I wish to suggest
    you few interesting issues or suggestions. Maybe you can write next articles relating to this article.
    I wish to read more things approximately it!

    Visit my homepage; zawsa.com

  69. My spouse and I stumbled over here by a different web address and thought I may as well check things out.
    I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to
    going over your web page repeatedly.

    My web site :: Ivory

  70. I seldom comment, but i did some searching and wound up here Les trois images de l'Eglise quand
    les Jesuites naissaient – Spiritualités et Cultures.
    And I actually do have 2 questions for you if it’s allright.

    Is it simply me or does it appear like a few of the responses look like coming from brain dead
    folks? 😛 And, if you are posting on additional online
    sites, I would like to keep up with everything fresh you have to post.
    Could you list of all of all your communal pages like your Facebook page,
    twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

    Here is my web site … Ali

  71. I almost never leave a response, but i did a few searching and wound up here Les trois images de
    l'Eglise quand les Jesuites naissaient – Spiritualités et Cultures.
    And I do have some questions for you if it’s allright.

    Could it be simply me or does it seem like a few of these remarks look as if they are written by brain dead individuals?
    😛 And, if you are writing on additional online sites, I would like to keep up
    with anything new you have to post. Could you make a
    list of every one of all your communal pages like your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?

    my web blog Imarais Beauty Review